The role of the social cognitive perspective and social identity theory in forming stereotypes

She has co-authored two books on psychology and media engagement.

social identity theory pdf

Thus, high-status groups are often particularly discriminatory, and low-status groups often show out- group favouritism, in status-related domains. Consequently, their self-esteem is impacted by the status of their groups.

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Another way group members may pursue positive distinctiveness is through differential discrimination in domains related to competence and warmth. All four items were retained in each scale.

Social identity theory tajfel and turner 1986 pdf

Thus, high-status groups are often particularly discriminatory, and low-status groups often show out- group favouritism, in status-related domains. Research demonstrates that in-group favoritism and out-group discrimination are distinct phenomena, and one does not necessarily predict the other. Furthermore, this categorization led to in-group favoritism and out-group discrimination, indicating that intergroup conflict could exist in the absence of any direct competition between groups. Instead it is stated that social identity theory must go hand in hand with sufficient understanding of the specific social context under consideration. If our self-esteem is to be maintained our group needs to compare favorably with other groups. Furthermore, we examined dis- crimination in two separate domains that differed in their relevance to the stereotypes—academia and sports. This process enables us to define people, including ourselves, on the basis of the groups to which we belong. We tend to define people based on their social categories more often than their individual characteristics.

Main article: In-group favoritism In-group favoritism also known as "ingroup bias", despite Turner's objections to the term [13] is an effect where people give preferential treatment to others when they are perceived to be in the same ingroup. Through this process, people become emotionally invested in their group memberships.

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In terms of our hypotheses, we expected high-status groups to emphasize their superiority on competence and minimize differences on warmth, and low-status groups to do the reverse Hypothesis 1.

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Social Identity Theory