Replacing animal testing unrealistic
Animal testing debate
Furthermore, a good regulatory regime—as found in the UK—can help to reduce further the number of animals used. This stance does not necessarily argue against all animal testing. There has been some progress recently imitating single organs such as the liver, but these need further refinement to make them suitable models for an entire organ and, even if validated, they cannot represent a whole-body system. In addition, longer survival of animal subjects due to an expanded repertoire of clinical support could result in better predictive models. The development of immunization against such diseases as polio, diphtheria, mumps, measles, rubella, pertussis, and hepatitis all involved research on animals, as did the discovery of insulin and the study of diabetes. This and other tests are already widely used as pre-screens to partly replace rodent testing for cancer-causing compounds. Animal dealers are the primary source for the rest.
Rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, dogs, cats, non-human primates, and assorted other animals are studied as well. The Humane Society of the United States HSUS web site provides some statistics on pain and distress in laboratory animals, plus additional information on the issue of pain and distress.
The moral issue on this side concerns the need to protect human life and to improve the quality of life. This result puts into context the results from another poll of GPs in However, there are concerns that extremist groups will try to obtain personal details and information that can identify researchers, and use it to target individuals.
Benefits of animal testing
Pet owners looking for the best or newest treatment for their ailing dog or cat may agree to take part in a clinical study--similar to the human clinical trials that test the effectiveness of different drugs or treatment methods on people with pre-existing conditions or diseases. Monkeypoxvirus infects a number of animal species, one of which is nonhuman primates. Replacing primates with people Neurological research often uses non-human primates but not the great apes such as chimpanzees, gorillas or bonobos; the sub-group of primates that includes humans because of the need to have study subjects that respond to training and instruction. Be aware, too, that the U. Micro-dosing Micro-dosing is an exciting new technique for measuring how very small doses of potential new medicines move around the body. Where it is still used, the number of rabbits has been reduced dramatically, and the techniques have been refined considerably, using much lower dosages of the test chemicals and providing an anesthetic to ease the pain. For example, many species have relatively short life cycles, so they can be studied throughout their entire life span or across several generations. In conclusion, RDS considers that the use of animals in research can be ethically and morally justified. This site takes an alternatives approach to the issues. Nevertheless, the use of the 3Rs is crucial to continuously reduce the number and suffering of animals in research. This involves detailed examination of the particular procedures and experiments, and the numbers and types of animal used.
Further, the identification of preexisting, cross-reacting epitopes against H1N1 viruses on human T-cells were used to test candidate vaccines against not only influenza viruses but other pathogens as well Schanen et al. A: Most products manufactured for human use must be tested for safety before they can be sold to the public.
These rigorous independent inquiries all accepted the rationale for the use of animals in research for the benefit of human health, and concluded that animal research can be scientifically validated on a case-by-case basis.
However, the use of animals in scientific and medical research has been a subject of heated debate for many years in the UK. This acceleration suggests the need to develop new and innovative strategies for collecting data and observations about how humans respond to these pathogens.
based on 41 review