Moder history sourcebook thomas hobbes leviathan chapters 13 14 1651
The passions that incline men to peace are fear of death, desire for things that are necessary for comfortable living, and a hope to obtain these by hard work. In such conditions there is no place for hard work, because there is no assurance that it will yield results; and consequently no cultivation of the earth, no navigation or use of materials that can be imported by sea, no construction of large buildings, no machines for moving things that require much force, no knowledge of the face of the earth, no account of time, no practical skills, no literature or scholarship, no society; and - worst of all - continual fear and danger of violent death, and the life of man solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.
Hobbes argues that fear stems from ignorance of causes and that religions have been invented to posit causal forces in an effort to dispel fear; however, only philosophy can achieve this successfully. However, until the time of Hobbes's writing, ignorance of this proper philosophy and lack of science had produced a variety of manners, none of which could claim the security of his propositions.
Hobbes leviathan chapter 14 summary
Also, because there be some that, taking pleasure in contemplating their own power in the acts of conquest, which they pursue farther than their security 2 Hobbes, Leviathan, Social Contract - 2 requires, if others, that otherwise would be glad to be at ease within modest bounds, should not by invasion increase their power, they would not be able, long time, by standing only on their defence, to subsist. After men form the social contract, they substitute moral equality for the natural equality that existed in the state of nature. Knowing neither the causes of power nor of fear, men relied on custom, the authority of others, and religion to achieve peace, but, without science, peace is always tenuous. And that law of all men, quod tibi fieri non vis, alteri ne feceris. This is no more than what he needs for his own survival, and is generally allowed. And when a man hath in either manner abandoned or granted away his right, then is he said to be obliged, or bound, not to hinder those to whom such right is granted, or abandoned, from the benefit of it: and that he ought, and it is duty, not to make void that voluntary act of his own: and that such hindrance is injustice, and injury, as being sine jure; the right being before renounced or transferred. From this equality of ability ariseth equality of hope in the attaining of our ends. But if other men will not lay down their right, as well as he, then there is no reason for anyone to divest himself of his: for that were to expose himself to prey, which no man is bound to, rather than to dispose himself to peace. By liberty is understood, according to the proper signification of the word, the absence of external impediments; which impediments may oft take away part of a man's power to do what he would, but cannot hinder him from using the power left him according as his judgement and reason shall dictate to him. The second branch contains in summary form the right of nature, which is the right to defend ourselves by any means we can. For though his action in this case be according to the law, yet his purpose was against the law; which, where the obligation is in foro interno, is a breach. For the savage people in many places of America, except the government of small families, the concord whereof dependeth on natural lust, have no government at all, and live at this day in that brutish manner, as I said before. The notions of Right and Wrong, Justice and Injustice have there no place. Force and fraud are in war the two cardinal virtues. And by consequence, such augmentation of dominion over men being necessary to a man's conservation, it ought to be allowed him.
The publicly recognized worth of an individual is "Dignity. Because human appetite is mechanical and resources are limited, when two people have an appetite for the same resource the natural result is war: "[I]f any two men desire the same thing, which nevertheless they cannot both enjoy, they become enemies; and in the way to their End, which is principally their own conservation, and sometimes their delectation onlyendeavour to destroy, or subdue one an other.
Thomas hobbes leviathan analysis
But if other men will not lay down their right, as well as he, then there is no reason for anyone to divest himself of his: for that were to expose himself to prey, which no man is bound to, rather than to dispose himself to peace. First, competition; secondly, diffidence; thirdly, glory. The right of nature is the liberty each person has to do anything within their means for self-preservation. These items are the ones that in other contexts are called the Laws of Nature. And this: Seventh law of nature: In revenge that is, returning evil for evil , men should look not at the greatness of the past evil but at the greatness of the future good. And these signs are either words only, or actions only; or, as it happeneth most often, both words and actions. A covenant is a contract made whereby one or more parties are bound to some future obligation a contract can be a simple exchange of goods for services, which ends after the transaction ends. With these first three laws of nature in hand, Hobbes then goes on to offer nineteen total laws that are derived from these initial three. For as it is there called an absurdity to contradict what one maintained in the beginning; so in the world it is called injustice, and injury voluntarily to undo that which from the beginning he had voluntarily done. Equality also takes on a different meaning for Locke in his state of nature, for equality exists in this state not because anyone has the power to kill anyone else, but because no one is subordinate to any one person or power. Howsoever, it may be perceived what manner of life there would be, where there were no common power to fear, by the manner of life which men that have formerly lived under a peaceful government use to degenerate into a civil war. For prudence is but experience, which equal time equally bestows on all men in those things they equally apply themselves unto. Thus, it is only when a common power is there to enforce the terms of an agreement can a covenant be valid.
That which may perhaps make such equality incredible is but a vain conceit of one's own wisdom, which almost all men think they have in a greater degree than the vulgar; that is, than all men but themselves, and a few others, whom by fame, or for concurring with themselves, they approve.
This is the law of the Gospel: Whatever you require others to do to you, do it to them.
Moder history sourcebook thomas hobbes leviathan chapters 13 14 1651
Equality also takes on a different meaning for Locke in his state of nature, for equality exists in this state not because anyone has the power to kill anyone else, but because no one is subordinate to any one person or power. Correspondingly, a law of nature is a rule, discovered by reason that forbids one to anything to hurt oneself, or to take away the means of self-preservation. First, competition; secondly, diffidence; thirdly, glory. So that in the nature of man, we find three principal causes of quarrel. For although those who speak of this subject commonly run together right and law jus and lex , they ought to be distinguished. Reason dictates, Hobbes writes, that the universe was first set in motion by a Prime Mover. And then there is this: Sixth law of nature: A man ought to pardon the past offences of those who repent of their offences, want to be pardoned, and provide guarantees of good behaviour in the future. Thus, to claim that man's life is "solitary and brutish" is misleading. Where there is no common power, there is no law; where no law, no injustice.
As for the faculties of the mind: I find that men are even more equal in these than they are in bodily strength. The negotiations between power and fear with the ultimate goal of achieving peace are called "Manners.
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