Crimean war eastern question

the eastern question refers to the disintegration of

The greatest check to Russian expansion took place after the Crimean War. The Eastern Question thus was not resolved until the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, the empire's formal dissolution inand the peace treaty of Lausanne—the only such settlement negotiated but not imposed after that war—that the Entente and associated powers signed with the Republic of Turkey in and ratified a year later.

Britain also had humanitarian interests in the Balkans: with the most developed system of representative government in Europe and the most influential popular press, London cabinets were under pressure when Ottoman misrule led to uprisings, atrocities and repression.

russo turkish war

Historians of World War I and have blamed the war on secret treaties, militarism, emotional nationalism and economic jealousy. Anderson, The Eastern Question, — ; A. England threatens Greece to support the false claims of a miserable Jew and burns its fleet: that is a lawful action; but Russia demands a treaty to protect millions of Christians, and that is deemed to strengthen its position in the East at the expense of the balance of power.

Eastern question quizlet

Still, the five Great Powers Britain, France, Russia, Austria, and Prussia acted in concert in the final settlement of the Egyptian question, and a treaty signed in London offered international guarantees of the Ottoman Empire's integrity. The result was a succession of Balkan crises, some of which had serious consequences for Europe as a whole. This accounts for Vienna's anti-Russian position during the Crimean War, and her alliance with Germany later. The Black Sea clauses came at a tremendous disadvantage to Russia, for it greatly diminished the naval threat it posed to the Ottomans. The Emperor of Russia and the Sultan agreed not to establish any naval or military arsenal on that sea coast. For clarity and organization I would begin an exploration of the Eastern Question by specifying the various interests and aims of the Great Powers. In many instances, the sultan had to be satisfied with nominal control: the lands of the disobedient ayans like Ali Pasha of Jannina or the purely legal vassalage of Serbia and Romania come to mind as examples. The strengths of Macfie's study are several. The victories set in motion Ottoman territorial attrition in southwest Asia; it spread to North Africa in , when France began its conquest of Algeria. An alarmed Austria sought to form an anti-Russian coalition, but its attempts were in vain. Despite frequent partition proposals put forth by diplomatic officials, the Great Powers generally adopted a defensive and conservative stance predicated on the goal of preserving a fragile balance of power that included the "sick man of Europe. Such a judgment, however, belies the realities. Foreign ministries tended to be isolated physically and procedurally , aloof, arrogant, secretive and arbitrary. London: Macmillan; New York : St.

In Balkan diplomatic history it is easy to find situations in which old-style diplomacy encountered new forces and did a poor job dealing with them. Copyright c by H-Net, all rights reserved. It was also forced to sell Alaska to the United States in order to pay its huge war debts. Events in Bosnia and Herzegovina once more led to a Russo-Turkish War —78 ; the Treaty of San Stefano was so favorable to Russia that Britain went to the verge of war to compel a revision.

essay on the eastern question

Its chancellor Prince Gorchakov had effectively secured Austrian neutrality with the Reichstadt Agreementunder which Ottoman territories captured in the course of the war would be partitioned between the Russian and Austria-Hungarian Empires, with the latter obtaining Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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The Great Powers and the "Eastern Question"