An analysis of the basic principles of writing and the history of writing

history research

West notes that the use of evidence in history differs from the social sciences--it is often spotty, does not speak for itself, and requires careful explanation. Avoid restating others' ideas--add personal value I.

How do historians write history

Where did it occur? If you find evidence that seems to contradict the argument that you intend to make, it would be better to alter your argument to take that new information into account than it would be to ignore it and move forward with your original argument. Shafer on external criticism: "It sometimes is said that its function is negative, merely saving us from using false evidence; whereas internal criticism has the positive function of telling us how to use authenticated evidence. Be certain to look at this journal. Harris Ed. Explain the significance of the evidence that you present. In general, when writing in history, the use of the past tense is preferred. Take the time to think and prepare When preparing to write for a history course, do not simply rush into the writing process! MacArthur, D. Taking detailed notes about exactly what stands out in the music can be rather helpful. Subsequent descriptions of historical method, outlined below, have attempted to overcome the credulity built into the first step formulated by the nineteenth century historiographers by stating principles not merely by which different reports can be harmonized but instead by which a statement found in a source may be considered to be unreliable or reliable as it stands on its own. In what original form was it produced integrity? Consider which arguments could be used against yours, and how you can refute them.

Although you are often writing for a professor that will be familiar with such terms, you will reinforce the logical progression of your paper by defining important terms and ideas as you write. McCullagh says that an argument from analogy, if sound, is either a "covert statistical syllogism" or better expressed as an argument to the best explanation.

It must exceed other incompatible hypotheses about the same subject by so much, in characteristics 2 to 6, that there is little chance of an incompatible hypothesis, after further investigation, soon exceeding it in these respects. The tradition must report a public event of importance, such as would necessarily be known directly to a great number of persons.

historical analysis

If it can be demonstrated that the witness or source has no direct interest in creating bias then the credibility of the message is increased. What was the author's intention in reporting? What obstacles might I encounter during the writing process?

An analysis of the basic principles of writing and the history of writing

Subsequent descriptions of historical method, outlined below, have attempted to overcome the credulity built into the first step formulated by the nineteenth century historiographers by stating principles not merely by which different reports can be harmonized but instead by which a statement found in a source may be considered to be unreliable or reliable as it stands on its own. When two sources disagree and there is no other means of evaluation, then historians take the source which seems to accord best with common sense. Tendencies should be minimized or supplemented with opposite motivations. Main research interests are: measuring writing processes, hypertext writing, writing interventions, observational learning, writing-to-learn, and transfer from writing to reading. Document evidence as you acquire it For example, you might be interested in researching Winston Churchill, but entire books have been published analyzing Churchill's life and actions. Take the time to think and prepare When preparing to write for a history course, do not simply rush into the writing process! Taking detailed notes about exactly what stands out in the music can be rather helpful. The consideration of evidence, and the best ways of approaching it, will be discussed in further detail in the next section. Treadway stresses that the goal of a historian should be to tell, ostensibly, what happened objectively. Argument to the best explanation[ edit ] C. The hypothesis must be less ad hoc than any other incompatible hypothesis about the same subject; that is, it must include fewer new suppositions about the past which are not already implied to some extent by existing beliefs. Much later? Where did it occur? Are there inner contradictions in the document?

For example, you might be interested in researching Winston Churchill, but entire books have been published analyzing Churchill's life and actions.

Relics are more credible sources than narratives.

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Design Principles for Teaching Effective Writing